Here is some research that I have done into the history of Nottingham Castle.
Research: The Rebellion and Nottingham Castles history
(In order of events)
Nottingham castle has over a thousand years of history, battles and hardships, whilst having a strong connection with the legendary outlaw Robin Hood. It’s believed that the original castle was built in 1067, a year after the famous battle of Hastings where the Normans reigned victorious. The castle was ordered to be built by the King of England, William the Conqueror, who wanted a motte and bailey design for the castle.
The castle was partially rebuilt, predominantly out of stone, about a century after by England’s then current ruler, Henry II to help strengthen the castle. In 1194 a battle took place at the castle which was due to the return of King Richard, who had a campaign to put down the rebellion of Prince John. The battle only managed to last a few days before the castle surrendered.
During 1326 the current ruler Edward II was deposed by his wife Isabella of France, where he later died in Berkley Castle in Gloucestershire. His son was heir to his throne, but due to him being a minor, his mother Isabella ruled England as a regent alongside her lover Roger Mortimer. In 1330 Edward III and some of his companions staged a coup d’état against his mother and Roger Mortimer. They used a secret tower to enter Nottingham Castle and have them captured. Mortimer was held on trial for Edward II murder, and was later executed. Whereas his mother was spared and died later in 1358.
In 1346 the castle served as a temporary prison for King David of Scotland, who had been defeated by the English during the Battle of Neville’s cross. He remained their temporarily whilst being transported to the Tower of London where he remained prisoner for 11 years.
Richard III spent a considerable amount of time at Nottingham castle during his short reign as King in 1485. From here is where he set off for the Battle of Bosworth where he became the last English King to die in battle. His remains were found in Leicester in august 2012 and he was then later buried in March 2015.
Nottingham Castle was besieged by King Charles I during the English Civil War. The castle was held by the parliamentarians who were commanded by John Hutchinson. They managed to successfully repulse many royalist assaults, who were eventually defeated by the parliamentarians. They executed the King in 1649. Hutchinson called for the castle to be demolished in order for it to not be used in war again. His proposal was granted and in 1651 the castle was demolished leaving only few structures left.
In 1678 a ducal palace was built on the site of Nottingham Castle by Henry Cavendish, the 2nd Duke of Newcastle. Roughly two centuries after the palace was built it was burnt down by rioters in 1831 as a result of the conflagration. All that remained after the fire was the external structure of the building, which was left for 40 years, before the Corporation of Nottingham were allowed a 500 year lease in 1875. Renovations were made to the palace, and was then opened as a museum of fine art in 1878 to the public.